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Bible History

The History of the Governments
of Israel and Judah

Lesson One

   This Bible Study will deal with the Kings and governments of Israel and Judah beginning with the death of Solomon and concluding with the carrying away. (Becoming the 'lost' tribes.) Before the death of Solomon there was only one nation. After his death two nations.

Source Material:

Samuel, Kings and Chronicles: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are parallel accounts of the events during Christ's life. Likewise, the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles are parallel accounts of the same events.

In this course we will compare Kings and Chronicles just as many books compare Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. As with Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, you should carefully compare one with another for details present in one account but not present in the other.

The Antiquities Of The Jews: By Josephus. In these lessons we will hear the witness of the historian Josephus (Joseph Ben Mattias). His father was a Levite and his mother was of the tribe of Judah. During his life he was a priest, general, prisoner, and later a Roman citizen and author. He lived from 37 A.D. to about 100 A.D. His writings are available in any Christian Book Store. We will present Josephus account parallel to the Bible's account.

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The Subject Material Of This Lesson is divided into three parts.

1. How, upon the death of Solomon, the people forsook his son Rehoboam, and ordained Jeroboam King over the Ten Tribes

2. How Jadon the prophet was persuaded by another lying prophet, and returned (to Bethel,) and was afterwards slain by a lion; as also, what words the wicked prophet make use of to persuade the king, and thereby alienated his mind from God.

3. Concerning Rehoboam, and how God inflicted punishment upon him for his impiety, by Shishak, (King of Egypt.)

Israel's First Kings

Israel's first king was Saul, The second king was David. Information on Saul and David is not included here. An excellent multi cassette Bible Study on Saul and David can be found here.

Stone Kingdom Ministries

Look for tape #383

 The third king over the United Kingdom was Solomon. After Solomon's death the kingdom was divided.

The History of the Kings of Israel and Judah begins with 1 Kings 11:43, "And Solomon slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David his father: and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead. These are the events following as told to us by the Bible and by the historian Josephus:

Lesson 1, Part 1

1. How, upon the death of Solomon, the people forsook his son Rehoboam, and ordained Jeroboam King over the Ten Tribes

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 7

Lesson 8

Lesson 9

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Solomon's son
Rehoboam is make King

The History Book

The Bible

Josephus.
Book. 8, Chapter 8, Sect. 1.

1 Kings 12:1-5

2 Chronicles 10:1-5

1. Now when Solomon was dead, and his son Rehoboam (who was born of an Ammonite wife, whose name was Naamah) had succeeded him in the kingdom, the rulers of the multitude sent immediately into Egypt, and called back Jeroboam; and when he was come to them to the city Shechem, Rehoboam came to it also, for he had resolved to declare himself king to the Israelites, while they were there gathered together. So the rulers of the people, as well as Jeroboam, came to him, and besought him, and said that he ought to relax, and to be gentler than his father, in the servitude he had imposed on them, because they had borne a heavy yoke, and that then they should be better affected to him, and be well contented to serve him under his moderate government, and should do it more out of love than fear; but Rehoboam told them they should come to him again in three days' time, when he would give a answer to their request. This delay gave occasion to a present suspicion, since he had not given them a favorable answer to their mind immediately, for they thought that he should have given them a humane answer off-hand, especially since he was but young. However, they thought that this consultation about it, and that he did not presently give them a denial afforded them some good hope of success.

(1) And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king.
(2) And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;)
(3) That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying,
(4) Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.
(5) And he said unto them, Depart yet for three days, then come again to me. And the people departed.
(1) And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for to Shechem were all Israel come to make him king.
(2) And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was in Egypt, whither he had fled from the presence of Solomon the king, heard it, that Jeroboam returned out of Egypt.
(3) And they sent and called him. So Jeroboam and all Israel came and spake to Rehoboam, saying,
(4) Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore ease thou somewhat the grievous servitude of thy father, and his heavy yoke that he put upon us, and we will serve thee.
(5) And he said unto them, Come again unto me after three days. And the people departed.
 

The People Petition Their King

Josephus
Book. 8, Chapter 8, Sect. 2.
1 Kings 12:6-11 2 Chronicles 10:6-11

2. Rehoboam now called his father's friends, and advised with them what sort of answer he ought to give to the multitude: upon which they gave him the advice which became friends, and those that knew the temper of such a multitude. They advised him to speak in a way more popular than suited the grandeur of a king, because he would thereby oblige them to submit to him with good-will, it being most agreeable to subjects that their kings should be almost upon the level with them;-but Rehoboam rejected this so good, and in general so profitable advice, (it was such at least, at that time when he was to be make king,) God himself, I suppose, causing what was most advantageous to be condemned by him. So he called for the young men who were brought up with him, and told them what advice the elders had given him, and bade them speak what they thought he ought to do. They advised him to give the following answer to the people, (for neither their youth nor God himself suffered them to discern what was best:)-That his little finger should be thicker than his father's loins; and if they had met with hard usage from his father, they should experience much rougher treatment from him; and if his father had chastised them with whips, they must expect that he would do it with scorpions. The king was pleased with this advice, and thought it agreeable to the dignity of his government to give them such an answer.

6) And king Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this people?
(7) And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be a servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants for ever.
(8) But he forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had given him, and consulted with the young men that were grown up with him, and which stood before him:
(9) And he said unto them, What counsel give ye that we may answer this people, who have spoken to me, saying, Make the yoke which thy father did put upon us lighter?
(10) And the young men that were grown up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou speak unto this people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it lighter unto us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins.
(11) And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke: my father hath chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions
 

(6) And king Rehoboam took counsel with the old men that had stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, saying, What counsel give ye me to return answer to this people?
(7) And they spake unto him, saying, If thou be kind to this people, and please them, and speak good words to them, they will be thy servants for ever.
(8) But he forsook the counsel which the old men gave him, and took counsel with the young men that were brought up with him, that stood before him.
(9) And he said unto them, What advice give ye that we may return answer to this people, which have spoken to me, saying, Ease somewhat the yoke that thy father did put upon us?
(10) And the young men that were brought up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou answer the people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it somewhat lighter for us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins.
(11) For whereas my father put a heavy yoke upon you, I will put more to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.

The King's Answer

Josephus continued.  Book. 8, Chapter 8, Sect. 2.

1 Kings 12:6-15 continued.

2 Chronicles 10:6-15 continued.

Accordingly, when the multitude was come together to hear his answer on the third day, all the people were in great expectation, and very intent to hear what the king would say to them, and supposed they should hear somewhat of a kind nature; but he passed by his friends, and answered as the young men had given him counsel. Now this was done according to the will of God, that what Ahijah had foretold might some to pass. (12) So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day.
(13) And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him;
(14) And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
(15) Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the Lord, that he might perform his saying, which the Lord spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.

(12) So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam on the third day, as the king bade, saying, Come again to me on the third day.
(13) And the king answered them roughly; and king Rehoboam forsook the counsel of the old men,
(14) And answered them after the advice of the young men, saying, My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add thereto: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
(15) So the king hearkened not unto the people: for the cause was of God, that the Lord might perform his word, which he spake by the hand of Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat.

What Ahijah The Shilonite Said Unto Jeroboam

1 Kings 11:9-13, 29-40

(9) And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the Lord God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice,
(10) And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the Lord commanded.
(11) Wherefore the Lord said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.
(12) Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father's sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. (13) Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen.
(29) And it came to pass at that time when Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him in the way; and he had clad himself with a new garment; and they two were alone in the field:
(30) And Ahijah caught the new garment that was on him, and rent it in twelve pieces: (31) And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces: for thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee:
(32) (But he shall have one tribe for my servant David's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel:)
(33) Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father.
(34) Howbeit I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand: but I will make him prince all the days of his life for David my servant's sake, whom I chose, because he kept my commandments and my statutes:
(35) But I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand, and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes.
(36) And unto his son will I give one tribe, that David my servant may have a light alway before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen me to put my name there.
(37) And I will take thee, and thou shalt reign according to all that thy soul desireth, and shalt be king over Israel.
(38) And it shall be, if thou wilt hearken unto all that I command thee, and wilt walk in my ways, and do that is right in my sight, to keep my statutes and my commandments, as David my servant did; that I will be with thee, and build thee a sure house, as I built for David, and will give Israel unto thee.
(39) And I will for this afflict the seed of David, but not for ever.
(40) Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon.

 
Comments:  The words translated usury in the Old Testament are 5378, 5383, 5391, and 5392 in Strong's Concordance. One of these definitions is of special "interest": #5391...to strike with a sting (as a serpent); fig, to oppress with interest on a loan:-bite, lend upon usury.

Perhaps, when Rehoboam said, "I will chastise you with scorpions". Was he saying, in modern day language, "I am going to raise taxes. And if you don't pay on time, I'll add penalties and interest".

The People Answer The King

Josephus
Book 8, Chapter 8, Section 3.

1 Kings 12:16-19

2 Chronicles 10:16-19

3. By these works the people were struck, as it were, by an iron hammer, and were so grieved at the words, as if they had already felt the effects of them; and they had great indignation at the king; and all cried out aloud, and said, "We will have no longer any relation to David or his posterity after this day;" and they said further, "We only leave to Rehoboam the temple which his father built;" and they threatened to forsake him. May, they were so bitter, and retained their wrath so long, that when he sent Adoram, who was over the tribute, that he might pacify them, and render them milder, and persuade them to forgive him, if he had said anything that was rash or grievous to them, in his youth, they would not hear it, but threw stones at him and killed him. When Rehoboam saw this, he thought himself aimed at by those stones with which they had killed his servant, and feared lest he should undergo the last of punishments in earnest; so he got immediately into his chariot, and fled Jerusalem, where the tribe of Judah and that of Benjamin ordained him king; but the rest of the multitude forsook the sons of David from that day, and appointed Jeroboam to be the ruler of their public affairs. (16) So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents.
(17) But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.
(18) Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tribute; and all Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. Therefore king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem.
(19) So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day.


 

 

(16) And when all Israel saw that the king would not hearken unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? and we have none inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to your tents, O Israel: and now, David, see to thine own house. So all Israel went to their tents.
(17) But as for the children of Israel that dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them.
(18) Then king Rehoboam sent Hadoram that was over the tribute; and the children of Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. But king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem.
(19) And Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day.


 

 

Questions

Question #1. In America today, which branch of government would Hadoram oversee?  (hint)

(  ) Department of Defense
(  ) Health, Education and Welfare.
(  ) Internal Revenue Service.

Question #2. What type of rebellion was this that caused the king to flee for his life?

(  ) Communist.
(  ) Taxpayers.

Answers and Next page - Click Here

 

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